Europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms
Edvardo F. Ščepaniko mokykla, humanitariniai mokslai Rita Miliūnaitė Lietuvių kalbos institutas, humanitariniai mokslai Peep Nemvalts Talino universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai Anita Nuopponen Vasos universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai Sergej Šelov Rusijos mokslų akademijos V.
Vinogradovo tendencija po akcijų visiškai prekybos sistemos kalbos institutas, filologijos mokslai Alvydas Umbrasas Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija, humanitariniai mokslai Rasuolė Vladarskienė Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai Palmira Zemlevičiūtė Lietuvių kalbos institutas, humanitariniai mokslai Sekretorė Asta Mitkevičienė Lietuvių kalbos institutas Sudarytoja Albina Auksoriūtė Lietuvių kalbos institutas Straipsniai recenzuojami dviejų recenzentų.
Leidybą rėmė Lietuvos mokslo taryba sutarties Nr. Vileišio g. Working methods have evolved. Micro-comparison between the Italian and the German-speaking systems Austria, Germany and Switzerland has become a hallmark of our terminology work. The online system bistro has also been renewed to accommodate changing user needs, e. A policy of growing attention to target users has led us to include work on legal collocations.
Further user requests concern domains like occupational health and safety. This implies treating relevant technical, medical and other scientific terminology. Doing this while remaining consistent with the methods applied to legal terminology poses a notable methodological challenge. Keywords: legal terminology, South Tyrol, micro-comparison, bistro, legal collocations, terminology user needs. Anotacija Straipsnyje apžvelgiama teisės terminologijos darbo raida Pietų Tirolyje.
Metodai yra patobulėję. Išskirtinis atliekamų terminologijos srities darbų bruožas itališkos ir vokiškos naudojamos Austrijoje, Vokietijoje ir Šveicarijoje kalbų sistemų lyginimas mikrolygmeniu.
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Atsižvelgiant į kintančius vartotojų poreikius, atnaujinta internetinė sistema bistro pavyzdžiui, imta taikyti tobulesnė filtravimo ir grįžtamojo ryšio funkcija. Vis daugiau dėmesio skiriant tiksliniams vartotojams, teko įtraukti teisės srities kolokacijas. Jau kyla vartotojų poreikių, susijusių su profesinės sveikatos ir saugos sritimis, vadinasi, reikia imtis ir techninės, medicininės bei kitų sričių mokslinės terminijos.
Tai suderinti su teisės terminijai taikomais metodais didelis metodologinis iššūkis. Esminiai žodžiai: teisės terminija, Pietų Tirolis, lyginimas mikrolygmeniu, bistro, teisės srities kolokacijos, terminijos vartotojų poreikiai. Today, both europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms are officially recognised at local level, albeit to different degrees and in areas of different size.
German has co-official status in the entire Province Presidential Decree No. The local public administration and the judiciary are obliged to offer their services in the language preferred by the citizen and to publish legislation and other official documents in both Italian and German. All public employees must prove knowledge of these two languages by passing an exam which has four different levels and consists of an oral and a written part.
There are schools of all degrees with either Italian or German as a main medium of instruction and the other language taught as a second language.
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Place names are systematically bilingual Palermo, Woelk ; Alber, Palermo Ladin speakers are entitled to use their native tongue with the local public administration in the two valleys e. Relevant legislation is made available also in the local Ladin variant or, at provincial level, alternately in one of 1 Ladin is an ancient Rhaeto-Romance language spoken in five valleys of the Dolomites that are part of three different provinces in Italy: Bolzano, Trento and Belluno.
There are approximately 30, speakers in the entire area Verra In this paper we shall not deal with the history and language of the Ladin minority in detail. For more information consult, for example, Pescosta Terminologija 8 the two variants Resolution of the Provincial Government No. Employees in the Ladin administration must prove the knowledge of all three official languages to the extent required for their specific position.
In Ladin schools, Italian and German are equally used as a medium of instruction and alternated regularly. Ladin is also taught for a few hours per week Verra This brief overview illustrates a situation in which the two South Tyrolean minority communities enjoy a high degree of protection and many essential rights, definitely being the best safeguarded minorities in Italy Alber, Palermo Yet today s state is the result of decades of social, economic and political struggles, including even terrorist attacks Forcher, Peterlini Despite all the promises made europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms the time by the King of Italy, the fascist regime that took power in systematically suppressed the German press and place names, fully Italianised the school system, the public administration and the judiciary, and basically forbade the use of German in public Forcher, Peterlini ; Pescosta Ladin was deliberately considered a dialect of Italian Pescosta Nevertheless, the public administration as well as the legislative and judicial powers remained largely Italian-speaking and basically inaccessible to members of the local minority communities see Alcock for a europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms detailed historical account in English.
From that moment on, the South Tyrolean minorities received a growing number of rights and ample autonomy, including 8 Elena Chiocchetti Terminology Work in South Tyrol: New Approaches, New Termbase, New Contents 9 primary and secondary legislative powers in many domains of administration, which lead to the current asset and, not surprisingly, to an increased need for legal terminology.
Due to space constraints, the following Sections will concentrate on the terminological development of German but not of Ladin in South Tyrol. Designating Italian legal concepts in German requires particular efforts even today, for several reasons. First, in the past, German had never been used to express the Italian legal system and its concepts; therefore, no reference terminology was available Coluccia Second, for many decades the development of a German legal terminology for the above-mentioned purpose was hampered both by the fascist ban on the German language in South Tyrol and later, until the s, by the marginalised status of the minority language in the judiciary system and in administration.
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Third, there are other nations in Europe where German is an official language at national or regional level Ammon et al. However, due to the differences between legal systems and the resulting system-bound nature of legal concepts de Groot 12Austrian, German or Swiss terms, for example, cannot simply be borrowed to express the concepts of the Italian legal system Alber, Palermo ; Chiocchetti, Ralli An evident case in point is the federal organisation of Austria, Germany and Switzerland that is reflected in their terminology.
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Such terms are largely inadequate to designate the more centralised Italian form of government. Until half a century ago, the development of German legal terminology in South Tyrol was uncoordinated and not rarely ad-hoc. Mainly in the ilgalaikės fx prekybos strategijos and s, different teams of local academics, lawyers and judges working in specific domains joined efforts to translate the Italian legal codes pertaining to their respective fields of activity from Italian into German.
In the aftermath of the New Statute of Autonomy and due to the new status of German as coofficial language, many other texts, such as laws and administrative documents of all kinds, were translated into German by public officials, clerks Terminologija 10 and professional translators for both internal and public use.
Regrettably, all these efforts were not directed by rlco prekybos sistema central office and lacked the necessary strategic language and terminology planning. Translations were often drafted on a needs basis or left to the private initiative of offices, clerks, associations, etc.
As a consequence, the same concepts often ended up being designated by different terms in German Mayer ; Sandrini ; Zanon ; Chiocchetti et al. For example, beni ereditari property belonging to a deceased person s estate was rendered Erbschaftsgüter in the translated Civil Code and Nachlassgüter or Verlassenschaftsgüter in the Civil Procedure Code.
When the New Statute of Autonomy was approved init was soon realized that the implementation of the new language provisions needed to be based on consistent, complete and univocal legal terminology. The Terminology Commission was set up in and consisted of six experts bilingual judges, lawyers and translators.
Its mandate was to officially validate legally binding couples of Italian and German terms in the main subdomains of law e. Europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms Commissioners aim was to develop a consistent set of well-researched German terms designating the most important legal concepts of the Italian legal system, which had to be used by the South Tyrolean legislature, judiciary and administration.
These terms were intended as one-to-one correspondents to the legal terminology in Italian modelio dienos prekybininko ateities sandoriai as a means of fostering legal certainty and reducing terminological variation in South Tyrolean German Alber, Palermo ; Chiocchetti et al. The Italian and German term couples were published progressively in the local Official Gazette in form of parallel lists.
From the moment of their publication, the officially standardised terminology became legally binding in South Tyrol. Europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms about 20 years of activity, the Terminology Commission managed to standardise approximately 7, couples of terms.
The first list was published inthe last europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms In addition, further 1 0 Elena Chiocchetti Terminology Work in South Tyrol: New Approaches, New Termbase, New Contents 11 terminology was already available in the parallel text editions of the main Italian legal codes. The terminology contained in these translations was batch standardised, bringing the amount of officially validated terms in South Tyrol to an estimated number of 15, to 20, Chiocchetti et al.
The Commissioners were supported in their standardisation work by a team of terminologists and legal experts at Eurac Research eurac. The interdisciplinary team started working with a systematic and domainoriented approach by delimiting every subdomain under analysis and acquiring relevant source material.
From there they extracted, selected and ordered the most important terms within the key subdomains of the Italian legal system e. Then they collected existing German designations for these national legal concepts in South Tyrolean texts. Definitions and contexts of use from relevant and authoritative books or normative texts were added, together with information on their sources Mayer ; Chiocchetti et al.
These fully-fledged terminological entries elaborated according to terminological principles and methods Arntz et al. In this way standardisation work contributed greatly to suppressing old impromptu or incorrect terms and to reducing terminological variation in South Tyrolean legal German.
For example, the standardised term Erbschaftsgüter is now the only designation used to render beni ereditari in local legislation. The systematic approach allowed to create a stock of coherent German terminology for the most important domains of activity of the local legislature, jurisdiction and administration. This method allows to compare different legal systems against each other to detect similarities and differences.
The comparison can involve entire legal families and legal systems with regard to their general methods and approaches to legal issues, legislative practice, legal interpretation, jurisprudence, etc.
It can also concern specific concepts or problems. In the latter case the method is termed micro-comparison Zweigert, Kötz 4 5; Pommer 84 85 and becomes relevant Terminologija 12 for terminology work in the domain of law Sandrini ; Mayer ; de Groot ; Chiocchetti Micro-comparison allows to understand whether two designations belonging to different legal systems refer to the same legal concept or not, i.
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Chiocchetti, Ralli for examples. In relation to terminology work in South Tyrol, applying micro-comparison means looking for legal concepts in Austria, Germany and Switzerland that are conceptually equivalent to the Italian legal concepts under analysis and which have a similar function within their respective legal systems Mayer ; Chiocchetti, Ralli At the onset of terminological activities in South Tyrol, it soon became clear that terminology work was not possible without casting a look across the border.
In addition, South Tyrol has always maintained thriving social, cultural, commercial and political contacts with these countries Woelk Therefore, to avoid an excessive regionalisation of South Tyrolean German and to foster transnational communication with the other German-speaking areas Sandriniconsidering the terminology used in the neighbouring countries would have been prekybos orų galimybės advantage.
Also, on very practical terms, the Terminology Commission could adopt two strategies to fill any terminological gaps: either produce neologisms or borrow foreign German designations used for equivalent concepts.
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This implied introducing microcomparison for concepts with non-existing or inadequate designations in South Tyrolean German Mayer ; At first, this rather laborious and time-consuming method Mayer was applied sporadically to fill terminological gaps or propose better fitting designations.
At the beginning of the new millennium, however, an EU-financing allowed to extend the method to a growing number of concepts. Over the years, legal comparison became a fundamental practice to ensure a high degree europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms terminological quality in South Tyrol Mayerprimarily by reducing impromptu and often literal translations from Italian and inadequate German designations.
Today, legal comparison between the Italian legal system and the neighbouring German-speaking systems it is the hallmark of terminology work at Eurac Research Chiocchetti et al.
Europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms transition became necessary when the activities of the Terminology Commission were discontinued in due to several reasons.
All the Commissioners were employed full-time in other positions, so that they could work on terminology issues only occasionally and standardisation work did not proceed at high speed.
Europos sąjunga sukūrė cap and and trade sistemą skirtą viktorinoms addition, only three out of six Commissioners were native German speakers. These three had a higher workload than their Italian-speaking colleagues, especially when neology was necessary.
The formal procedure for standardisation further hampered activities, because the lists validated by the Terminology Commission needed to be approved by both the local government and the local representative of the central government before being published in the Official Gazette.
This meant a systematic delay of six months. The lack of time and the lengthy procedure in the end made it difficult to keep up with new legislation, the designation of new concepts and the necessary revisions in case of legal reforms. Indeed, it happened that previously standardised terms became outdated quite soon. Finally, if we consider that the terminological needs became urgent in when the New Statute of Autonomy was passed and that the first standardisation results were published ina delay of over 20 years becomes evident.
In the meantime, terminological development kept happening in an uncoordinated and unplanned way, making subsequent standardisation even more challenging Chiocchetti et al.
Despite all these obstacles, the standardisation efforts have provided a fair amount of established terminology in several subdomains of law and most importantly drawn attention to the quality of language, translation and terminology as well as to the existing terminological repositories.
Not all standardised terms were accepted by the users, excel prekybos sistemos šablonas variation still exists and there remain several domains which would need some systematic terminology work e.
Such systematic work is still done when new domains are explored, but a notable share of the terminological activities at Eurac Research today are aukso dienos prekybos strategija for example, when new legislation is passed on important topics and ad-hoc for example, when new concepts become relevant or specific requests are posted. In addition, the existing stock of terminology is regularly checked Terminologija 14 and, if necessary, updated.
Today, maintenance and updating are essential steps to preserve the quality and reliability of any terminological resource for its end users Drewer, Schmitz 37; Zanola Standardisation work was always based on essentially descriptive terminological entries. With the last normative step being abandoned, the descriptive approach remained in place. In addition, since it is now easier to disseminate terminology widely e.
When there are still doubts on which term, among a set of two or more concurring ones, should be used in South Tyrol, the terminologists at Eurac Research consult with the Office for Language Issues, which is responsible for the translation and revision of local legislation, and with domain experts, so that a joint recommendation may be given.
However, this recommendation is in no way legally binding and the users remain free to choose based on the information made available in the terminological entries. The third and last change in working approach concerns cooperation with end-users. In the s, the most urgent domains had been selected on a needs basis, favouring the subdomains that were more relevant for the South Tyrolean public administration and the judiciary, while essentially leaving out some others such as, for example, maritime law and church law.
In the last three decades the local government has acquired additional primary and secondary legislative powers and some subdomains have gained relevance, for example occupational health and safety. Consequently, the current approach to terminology work is very focused on the needs expressed by the end users. For example, the request for terminology work in the domain of occupational health and safety was voiced by the responsible offices within the local administration.
Šioms veikloms buvo organizuojamos leidėjų darbo grupės, todėl dalis LLA narių turėjo galimybę pristatyti lietuvių autorių knygas leidėjams ir literatūros agentams iš kitų šalių.
Terminology work on living wills was triggered by a new law approved in in Italy. Several ad-hoc requests were posted by other local public or private organisations, e. Such requests are analysed, answered and the results are made available to the general public. Paying greater attention to the real needs of users allows the terminology work at Eurac Research to be focused on current topics and, at the same time, to disseminate work more easily among specific professional communities.
Working on present-day legislation and debated topics as 1 4 Elena Chiocchetti Terminology Work in South Tyrol: New Approaches, New Termbase, New Contents 15 soon as possible also helps directing the language choice of text drafters in the local media and administration, thus reducing the spawning of impromptu translations and terminological variation.
For example, making comparative terminology work on vdub prekybos strategija terminology used in the debate on same-sex civil partnerships available very soon helped eliminate literal translations such as zivile Union for the Italian term unione civile and disseminated the equivalent eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft.
The latter is the term used in Germany, whose legislation served as a model for the Italian one Deputati PD 1. The Swiss and Austrian term eingetragene Partnerschaft is very similar and further supports the choice of an established foreign equivalent rather than a literal translation that would be understood only by South Tyroleans. The bilingual word lists of standardised terms published in the Official Gazette were not widely accessible.
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Furthermore, the full terminological entries contained additional precious information like definitions, contexts of use and notes that were also worth sharing. For this reason and thanks to the favourable technological development, sinceall the terminological entries produced at Eurac Research have been published in full and made freely available online through the Information System for Legal Terminology bistro bistro s aim is to foster communication and mutual understanding between people and organisations from different legal systems, with a focus on Austria, Italy, Germany and Switzerland.
The relevant supranational levels of EU law and international law are partly included, too. With a more local focus, bistro also intends to support and promote the development and harmonisation of legal terminology in South Tyrolean German. Its contents mainly relate to administrative, civil, commercial, company, criminal, family and civil and criminal procedural law. Occupational health and safety is another well-represented legal subdomain today.